Blog entries with tag “Maths

A note on finitely generated/related/presented groups

Group presentation is a method to express groups as a quotient of a free group and a normal subgroup. In a presentation, there are generators and relators, and the presentation yields a ‘minimalist implementation’ of these generators and relations. Some cases of special interests are finitely generated/related/presented groups. From the definition, finite generation + finite relation is not linguistically equivalent to finite presentation. There has been some discussion on the relation of the three properties for several other algebraic structures. This entry proves that finite generation + finite relation imples finite presentation for groups.


理想(ideal)是出现在抽象代数(更特别地,环论)中的一类对象,其命名很有渊源。之前我只知道这个名字来源于一位数学家研究惟一分解时引入的“理想数”(该研究的思路和一般化最终形成了现代数学语言中“理想”的定义),但是具体的细节不是很明白;最近在阅读基于格(lattice)的密码学的内容,其中提到了环上的格(ring lattice),其中提到了理想格(环的一个子集,同时满足格和理想的要求),好奇心一发不可收拾,读了一些数学历史故事,对“理想数”加深了认识,记录下来以飨观众。文章最后讨论了“理想数”这个翻译的不达意之处。

The Code Book (Simon Singh) 读书笔记

操作系统课中讲安全的一节是代课老师上的,期间他推荐了 The Code Book (Simon Singh) 这本书,说是讲密码学历史的。我对密码学感兴趣,就读了一读,并照“不动笔墨不读书”的原则,记了读书笔记,发表出来以飨观众。

The Code Book (Simon Singh) 读书笔记

Rethinking base ‘conversion’

Base conversion is the conversion between notations of number, and NOT the numbers themselves. I discuss a common mistake on methods of base conversion, and a common mistake in thinking about ‘base conversion’ in computer programs.

Is the pattern you found persuasive?

Starting from the classic puzzles of finding patterns in a sequence, this entry explores the framework to define persuasive patterns. The framework is found to be quite self-contained in the sense that it is ‘asymptotically invariant’ to the choice of ‘language of expression’. The only short-coming of this framework is that it works only for computable sequences, yet the process of pattern discovery is incomputable.

Is the pattern you found persuasive?

Of elementary general terms

In this entry, I discuss a pathological construction of general terms of a class of integer-valued sequences with the widely accepted concept of ‘elementary functions’. The idea here is to simply ‘concatenate’ the integers in a real number, then extract the appropriate digits for each term. It turns out that this definition characterises the elementariness very well (note that the definition is also self-referencing). The extended inspection leaves a problem open: Are all integer-valued sequences elementary? Update: The question is solved with an affirmative answer.

Mean value theorem and heuristics from differential equation

In this entry, I discuss a kind of widely posed exam problems for elementary calculus learners. It concerns a technique of application of (differential) mean value theorems. Speficially, a class of such problems can be solved dogmatically if the equation to prove resembles a ‘factorisable’ linear differential equation.

Mean value theorem and heuristics from differential equation



鸡贼地 bound 一个数列

我发现当我的生活充实的时候就有有趣的 blog 可以写!因为一忙起来,就要忙里偷闲,然后就会胡思乱想,然后就可能有有意思的东西。(已更新)

Of Kerckhoffs’ principle

Let me explain the classic idea that ‘the algorithm of a crypto system should be considered and made public’ to you. Particularly, I will discuss what it means by ‘crypto system’, which tells us what information should be no secret at all.